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CompleteMartialArts.com - The Teeth and Claws of the Buddha: Monastic Warriors and Sohei in Japanese History

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Manufacturer: University of Hawaii Press
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Binding: Paperback
Dewey Decimal Number: 306.270952
EAN: 9780824831233
ISBN: 0824831233
Label: University of Hawaii Press
Manufacturer: University of Hawaii Press
Number Of Items: 1
Number Of Pages: 212
Publication Date: 2007-06-30
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
Studio: University of Hawaii Press

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Editorial Reviews:

Japan's monastic warriors have fared poorly in comparison to the samurai, both in terms of historical reputation and representations in popular culture. Often maligned and criticized for their involvement in politics and other secular matters, they have been seen as figures separate from the larger military class. However, as Mikael Adolphson reveals in his comprehensive and authoritative examination of the social origins of the monastic forces, political conditions, and warfare practices of the Heian (794-1185) and Kamakura (1185-1333) eras, these "monk-warriors"(sōhei) were in reality inseparable from the warrior class. Their negative image, Adolphson argues, is a construct that grew out of artistic sources critical of the established temples from the fourteenth century on. As the warrior class came to dominate national politics, the sōhei image gained momentum and was eventually paired with the concept of "monk-warriors," a term imported from Korea. Only one sōhei, the legendary Benkei of the late twelfth century, escaped the criticisms leveled at the monk-warriors by later observers--not because he was justified in fighting as a monk, but rather because he served the celebrated warrior Minamoto Yoshitsune, thus reinforcing the primacy of the samurai image.

In deconstructing the sōhei image and looking for clues as to the characteristics, role, and meaning of the monastic forces, The Teeth and Claws of Buddha highlights the importance of historical circumstances; it also points to the fallacies of allowing later, especially modern, notions of religion to exert undue influence on interpretations of the past. It further suggests that, rather than constituting a separate category of violence, religious violence needs to be understood in its political, social, military, and ideological contexts. Monastic warriors acted no differently from their secular counterparts and do not appear to have been motivated by a religious rhetoric much different from other ideologies condoning violence. The absence of such a discourse is as unexpected as it is important--particularly in light of current assumptions about holy wars and crusaders--indicating that other factors played an important role for those who fought in the name of the Buddha. By tracing the use and emergence of the constructed sōhei images that displaced the historical Benkei and monastic fighters, this work also offers an explanation of how and why the invented tradition of "monk-warriors" became such a prominent feature in the modern reconstruction of medieval Japan.

The Teeth and Claws of Buddha puts East Asian religious violence in its proper milieu. Its intelligent and cogent analysis will be of great interest to scholars and students of early Japanese history and religion as well as specialists in premodern Buddhism and religion in China and Korea.

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Customer Rating:
Summary: excellent, but very dense, scholarly work
Comment: I agree entirely with the excellent review written by R. Pelzer, I just want to add this this is a very dense scholarly book littered with footnotes. It is not a quick read and not stirring tales of action, it appears to be meticulously researched and very thorough. A reference book

Customer Rating:
Summary: The standard work on 'Sohei' for years to come
Comment: This book presents an excellent and well-balanced presentation of Japanese monastic warriors based completely on primary and secondary sources. To my knowledge, it's the first work to present a trustworthy picture of who the monastic warriors of medieval Japan were, what the social context was in which they lived, the factors that played a role in establishing the currently held inaccurate image of them, how this image was able to survive in Japan and elsewhere until today and why it is still so powerful that until recently Japanese scholarship (despite the fact that according to the author the truth is there for everyone to see inside the primary documents) hasn't been able to dismantle it. Most interestingly, the author comes to his conclusions by systematically and thoroughly, although the author himself admits not comprehensively (which I believe, in this case, isn't adversely influencing the results of the research), analyzing the mistakes in the interpretation of primary sources by the Japanese academic world thusfar. A possible explanation for the fact that Japanese scholarship has sustained the inaccurate image of monastic warriors for so long is being given, and convincingly at that, as well as some recent attempts within Japanese academe at reconsideration of established views by a reinterpretation of primary sources. Besides all of this, the book contains a wonderful bibliography as well as excellent notes including Japanese characters that enable the interested reader to explore further. Well, to put it in a single frase, I strongly feel that this book is the product of excellent, first-rate scholarship and would therefore like to recommend it highly to anyone interested in the subject.

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